Background on the Under2

Executive Summary

The Under2 Coalition is a diverse group of governments around the world who set ambitious targets to combat climate change. Central to the Under2 MOU (Memorandum of Understanding) is an agreement from all signatories to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions 80 to 95 percent below 1990 levels, or limit to 2 annual metric tons of CO2-equivalent per capita, by 2050. A total of 187 jurisdictions spanning 38 countries and six continents have signed or endorsed the Under2 MOU. Collectively, the Under2 Coalition represents 1.2 billion people and $28.8 trillion in GDP – equivalent to 16 percent of the global population and 39 percent of the global economy.

The Under2 MOU originated from a partnership between California and Baden-Württemberg with the aim of bringing together ambitious states and regions willing to make a number of key commitments toward emissions reduction and to help galvanize action at the COP 21 (Conference of the Parties) Paris Climate Change Conference in December 2015.

Please click on the following Under2 Coalition Two Pager (last updated September 2017) to see a document outlining the Coalition’s vision, goals, work streams, map, and members.

The Under2 MOU…

  • Brings together subnational governments willing to commit to either reducing their greenhouse gas emissions 80 to 95 percent below 1990 levels or limiting emissions to less than 2 metric tons per capita by 2050;
  • Is in line with scientifically established emissions levels necessary to limit global warming below 2 degrees Celsius;
  • Offers opportunities for states, regions, and cities to share ideas and best practices on how to reduce greenhouse gases and expand renewable energy development;
  • Provides a model for other governments of all levels to join;
  • Brings international attention to the actions and ambitious reduction goals of climate leaders at a subnational level around the globe;
  • Demonstrates the collective impact of these actions and commitments across states, regions, cities, and countries; and
  • Highlights the diversity of approaches to reducing emissions.