Appendix Guidance (English)

Suggestions for Content of Appendix

All signatories of the Under2 MOU are required to submit an appendix. The appendix is an opportunity to highlight the actions and commitments that are planned or in place to achieve emissions reductions targets through 2030. Appendices by signatories will illustrate the diverse mitigation approaches of climate leaders around the world.

Because each jurisdiction’s challenges and opportunities are different, each appendix will have its own form; however, appendices can share certain common elements. You may wish to describe the profile of your jurisdiction, specify your emissions reduction targets, and provide examples of the tools you use to meet those targets. Most appendices are between 2 to 5 pages.

The questions below are presented merely as suggested topics to consider addressing in your appendix; the list is not intended to be exhaustive or exclusive. Some of the topics may be highly relevant to your jurisdiction’s actions and plans for emissions reduction, while others may be less relevant to your situation. You should use your discretion when selecting subjects to address. Example appendices prepared by founding signatories are available for review here.


What is your geographic, demographic, and economic profile?

  • In what country are you located?
  • What is your population?
  • What is your Gross Domestic Product (or economic output measured by another economic indicator)?

What are your targets for reducing and avoiding emissions?

  • What emissions reductions are you trying to achieve (percent/metric tons, overall/per capita)? By what year? From what baseline year are you measuring?
  • What additional emissions are you trying to avoid?
  • Do you have any intermediate targets?
  • Are you focused on reductions in any particular priority GHGs?
  • What are your current emissions (total, by sector, by pollutant)?
  • Do you have any monitoring or reporting obligations (internal/external, binding/non-binding)?

What goals, standards, policies, technologies, etc. are you implementing or planning across various sectors to develop sustainably and meet your GHG emissions reduction targets? For instance, what are your actions and commitments around…

  • Renewable energy, energy efficiency, and energy storage?
  • Sustainable transportation? (reduction of travel in single-occupant vehicles, fuel switching, fuel efficiency, freight/rail/aviation)
  • Natural resource protection? (forestry and wild lands management, agricultural management, ecosystem services protection, coastal resource management, carbon sinks and sequestration)

Additional Topics for Consideration

Discussion of a jurisdiction’s profile, targets, and mitigation tools can make up the bulk of the appendix.  In some cases, however, the appendix may address additional topics that are particularly important to a jurisdiction, such as capacity and climate change adaptation.  Again, the questions below are presented as suggested considerations only and your appendix should discuss the topics most relevant to your jurisdiction, whether listed below or not.

You may wish to address any capacity issues that affect your ability to achieve emissions reductions.  For instance, you might discuss aspects of capacity if they are key components of your mitigation successes.  Conversely, if gaps in capacity are a hindrance to effective mitigation implementation, you may view the appendix as an opportunity to call attention to those areas on which your jurisdiction is eager to collaborate.  (Questions along these lines are included below in parentheses.)

Although the focus of the MOU and the appendices is the mitigation of GHG emissions, you may also wish to mention any actions and plans you have for climate change adaptation if this issue is significant for your jurisdiction.


How will you ensure adequate financial, institutional, and workforce capacity to develop sustainably and meet your GHG emissions reduction targets?

  • What market incentives and funds are in place or planned to support implementation of emissions reduction measures?  (What additional funding is needed to meet your emissions reduction goals?  Over what period of time?)
  • Are you leveraging existing domestic and international partnerships to fund reduction measures?  (Are you hoping to establish new partnerships?)
  • What institutional structures are in place or planned to implement and monitor your emissions reductions policies?  (Are you hoping to strengthen institutional structures through internal development and/or external partnerships on technology transfer and research?)
  • Are you investing in workforce development and leveraging public-private partnerships to achieve long-term emissions reductions across economic sectors?  (Are you hoping to partner with new investors?)
  • Are you conducting outreach to increase public awareness and encourage public engagement on climate change mitigation?

How will you adapt to climate change?

  • How will you address equity and environmental justice?
  • How will you safeguard human health?
  • How will you prepare for extreme weather events?